Impact crushers, or impactors, are one of several types of crushers, including jaw crushers, hammer crushers, and cone crushers, and are designed for processing raw materials such as concrete or asphalt, among many other purposes, to reduce their size.
What are impact crusher definition and working principle?
Used in a wide variety of applications, including aggregate crushing, asphalt crushing, and concrete crushing, among others, the impactor is a unique crusher counterpart because it breaks rock and stone by striking the material quickly, rather than using pressure.
The mechanical structure of an impact crusher is defined by its rotor, which is the main instrument for breaking down materials. The rotor is set on a mounting plate, anvil, or apron, in a heavy housing; these aprons or anvils are used to withstand the impact of the materials being processed and further separate them.
What is an impact crusher and what can it do for you?
Impact Crusher Types
There are two styles of impact crushers: Horizontal Shaft Impactors (HSI) and Vertical Shaft Impactors (VSI). The difference between the two styles is the physical orientation of the rotor within the impactor.
The rotor of the horizontal axis impactor is oriented horizontally, using a blow rod or hammer to hit the flowing material with great force to break it. Horizontal shaft crushers can be used as both primary and secondary crushers, capable of crushing a wide range of materials from soft rock to harder materials.
When the horizontal axis impactor works, the rotor rotates around its axis at high speed. When the material flows into the chamber, the blowing rod of the rotor strikes the material repeatedly, separating it and sending it into the suspension apron, resulting in additional reduction.
The rotor of the vertical axis impactor is vertical. It does not rely on huge force to hit the material, but relies on the high-speed launch of the material to hit the anvil or other rocks arranged around the rotor. Vertical shaft crushers have a limited feed size and can only be used as secondary or tertiary crushers.
When the vertical axis impactor is in operation, material is fed into the chamber from above the rotating rotor. Material enters the fast-moving wings of the rotor and is thrown outward, breaking up on surrounding anvils or rocks.
The final particle size of the material processed by an impact crusher depends in part on the rotational speed of its rotor. As the rotor runs at higher speeds, the material is reduced to finer and finer gauges. Also, how tightly the apron is in relation to the rotor can further determine the size of the material; the tighter the apron, the finer the output.
The impact crusher is popular because it can be used in a variety of material processing applications in a variety of configurations, making it a versatile crusher. From soft rock to hard rock – as a primary or secondary crusher – impact crushers can be custom calibrated to ensure your success.